Definition : For the purpose of Railway working, accident is an occurrence in the course of working of Railway which does or may affect the safety of the railway, its engine, rolling stock, permanent way and works, fixed installations, passengers or servant which affect the safety of others or which does or may cause delay to train or loss to the railway property. For statistical purposes accident has been classified in categories from A to R excluding I and O.

Classification of Accidents: (AM 117 –124)

Accidents are classified under following heads -

Coaching codes

Coaching codes

Vehicle codes for Coaching stock:- The following code letters must be used to designate the
various designations of coaching stock in use:

Rules for booking Special Coaches & Special Trains on FTR

Rules for booking Special Coaches & Special Trains on FTR

1. Reservation of special coaches / trains: Application for reservation of carriage must be made through the SM of originating station to the CPTM, giving details of the journey such as destination, route to be followed, halts enroute, and the specific train to which the coach is to be attached at least 30 days in advance and not more than 6 months prior to the commencement of journey.
2. In case any party wishes to requisition a special coach at a short notice of less than 30 days specific permission must be obtained from CPTM.
3. It will be the sole discretion of the Railway Administration to allot a coach / train and programme its movement depending on the availability of coaches, path and other operational considerations.



Coaching Vehicle census is conducted as and when, the directives are received from Railway Board. Prior to conducting a coaching vehicle census, CPTM holds a meeting and instructs the census officials. The month, date time of census is notified to all the staff involving in census. Unlike, goods wagon census, coaching vehicles census is not laborious, as the vehicles are generally run in rakes and they are keenly monitored daily. A Cardex system in the coaching cabinet was a method to monitor the movement of individual coaches. After full implementation of COIS, the monitoring of the movement of coaches will be further made easy.



As far as the passenger train operation is concerned the sole and core factor that gauges its efficiency is ‘punctuality’. It is monitored at various levels of Railway Operation and management. It is an all-important index which decides the overall working of passenger operation. It is undeniable and understandable facts that image of Railways solely depend on this factor. Any deviation or dilution of punctuality will lead to doom and gloom on the part of everyone. Considering the essence of punctual running it is the endeavor of every railway man to strain every nerve to achieve this and no stone shall be left unturned.

Concept of punctuality:

Punctuality on its own cannot be defined like any scientific item. It differs with perception of persons. What is punctuality in the eyes of a passenger may not be the same from what railways perceive. Both are striking a different note.



Time table is a schedule in a table form, showing details of arrivals and departures at every station of all trains carrying passengers. These time tables are issued by every zonal railway, generally every six months. However, with effect from 1st July 1991, new time table is issued once a year in July only. On Indian Railways there is another time table, "Trains at a Glance", which is issued by the Railway Board and carries stoppages of important trains at important stations only all over the Indian Railways, as against the Zonal Time Table which indicates stoppages of all scheduled trains at every station on the railways. The objectives of passenger time table are as under:

1. information for intending passengers regarding

i. schedules of arrivals and departures;
ii. through sectional and suburban trains;
iii. connections at various stations;



Rake Link

The overall high-level plan for rake movements is described in a rake link booklet issued for official use only by a Zonal railway, which has details of the planned rake links, composition, marshalling order, permissible loads and accommodation in Mail / Express & Passenger trains handled by the Zone.

The schedule of the train is drawn by the respective Zonal Railway so as to run to the maximum before taken for the regular maintenance. This is published through a booklet by COM and CPTM. The rake link is drawn up keeping in mind asset utilization and maintenance schedules for the stock. The day-to-day operational schedules are then drawn up with this as the basis and used by the operational staff / marshalling yard staff. The rake link is also used by the reservation staff to determine the sizes and distribution of reserved accommodation quotas.



Marshalling is attaching of vehicles on a train in a predetermined manner to ensure train safety, provide operational expediency and to maximize customers’ convenience.

Marshalling of Mail/ Express/Passenger trains:

The general principles kept in view while marshalling are:

i) Position of upper class coaches, ladies compartment, dining car, in respect of easy accessibility normally the dining cars or the catering compartments, air conditioned and upper class coaches, shall be marshaled in the middle of the train or as near to it as possible and ladies compartment will be near Guard’s SLR.

Private Number

Private Number

A Private Number is a number, obtained over the telephone or telegraph from the station master of the station granting Line Clear or requesting points to be set or signals to be pulled off. This number is noted on the paper forms such as the Line Clear Ticket or Conditional Line Clear Certificate and can be verified later at the receiving station (the one granting Line Clear) or requesting the signal or points change. This is an additional safety device.

Abnormal Working in Automatic Section

Abnormal Working in Automatic Section

A. Working of trains during prolonged failure of signals when means of communications are available (S.R.9.12 – 1)

1. In the event of prolonged failure of all signals the ‘Officials concerned of the Signalling Department shall take immediate steps to inform all concerned.
2. Before any train is allowed to enter the affected section, it shall be brought to a stand and the Loco Pilot, Guard, Controller and the Station Master concerned ahead of the affected section shall be informed.
3. The Station Master shall obtain ‘Line Clear’ for the train by one of the following means of communications, viz.
a. Station to station fixed telephones wherever available;
b. Fixed telephone such as Railway auto phones & BSNL / MTNL phones;


All Communication Failure on Single line

All Communication Failure on Single line (SR 6.02 – 4)

1. In the event of total interruption of communication (TIC) occurring between two stations on a single line section, i.e. when Line Clear cannot be obtained by any one of the following means stated in order of preference viz:
a. Block instruments; Track circuits or Axle counters;
b. Telephones attached to the Block Instruments;
c. Station to station fixed telephones wherever available;
d. Fixed telephone such as Railway auto phones & BSNL / MTNL phones;
e. Control Telephone;
f. VHF sets under special instructions, but not as the sole means of communication on sections where passenger trains run.

All Communication Failure on Double line

All Communication Failure on Double line (SR 6.02 –3)

1. In the event of total interruption of communication (TIC) occurring between two stations on a double line section, i.e. when Line Clear cannot be obtained by any one of the following means stated in order of preference viz :

  a. Block instruments; Track circuits or Axle counters;
  b. Telephones attached to the Block Instruments;
  c. Station to station fixed telephones wherever available;
  d. Fixed telephone such as Railway auto phones & BSNL / MTNL phones;
  e. Control Telephone;
 f. VHF sets under special instructions, but not as the sole means of communication on sections where               passenger trains run.

The following procedure shall be adopted for train passing.

TSL working on Double line

TSL working on Double line SR 6.02 – 1

1. Whenever an accident to a train or track or other obstruction takes place on a double line, the traffic may temporarily worked under the following systems:

a. By obtaining ‘line clear’ on electric speaking instruments,
b. By the installation of single line block instruments and SLB demarcating the block section in the wrong direction, if the affected line is likely to remain out of use for a substantial period.

2. On receipt of reliable information in writing that one line is clear, SM, in consultation with SCOR and the SM of the station at the other end of the section shall take steps to introduce TSL working.

Systems of Working

Systems of Working

Systems of Working: GR 7.01

(1) All trains working between stations shall be worked on one of the following systems, namely –

(a) The Absolute Block System,
(b) The Automatic Block System,
(c) The Following Trains System,
(d) The Pilot Guard System,
(e) The Train Staff and Ticket System, or
 (f) The One Train Only System.

(2) Systems of working in force on Central Railway: SR 7.01 – 1



Loco link is an arrangement of locomotive for working a set of trains from one station to other station for Mail/Express/Passenger trains. Loco link gives the requirement of locomotive required to run the given number of trains. Loco link is prepared by HQ office in consultation with COM.

Factors to be considered while preparing a loco link:

1) Availability of the Loco.
2) Trip Inspection:

Mail/Express or Passenger locomotives are required to be given trip inspection as under as per AC traction manual:-
After running of 3000 kms or at completion of a trip whichever is later.



The Ro - Ro scheme was first introduced in Konkan Railway in 1999. This enables carrying the loaded trucks directly on the railway wagons, thus reducing the expenditure on diesel, wear and tear of tyres and maintenance of trucks for truck operators.
This is providing faster turn round and higher profits to the transporters. This service ensures timely and safe delivery free of any risk factor and without multiple handling of consignments.
This is a regular service between Mangalore to Bombay on Western Ghats cutting down nearly 10 hours transit time. On finding the success, arrangements are made to run such trains between Bombay and Howrah on nominated days.



Railway Statistics: Essential for planning prioritizing and exceeding activities connected with operation.

The railway statistics are based on four factors -

Duration and

In Railway environment these relate to –



Section Capacity and Throughput

Section Capacity and Throughput

Section capacity:-

Definition: Line capacity is also known as section capacity. Section capacity is defined as the “Number of train which can be run on the section in 24 hours”. This could be expressed in three different ways:

a. Maximum line capacity
b. Practical line capacity
c. Economic line capacity

a. Maximum line capacity: this is represented by the maximum number of trains that can be entered in the master chart so that it is impossible to introduce even a single more train on the section concerned.



1) No empty Oil Tank/BCX/BOX wagon will be permitted to move under any circumstances with a broken spring or broken springs with a clamp and shall be detached at the point of detection or the broken spring will be replaced by a good one.
2) No loaded Oil Tank/BCX &BOX wagons with a broken or clamped broken spring shall be permitted on train from the originating yard nor shall such wagon be permitted through yards specifically nominated for spring changing.
3) Maximum number of broken springs that can be clamped on a loaded Oil Tank/ BOX/BCX wagon will be restricted to one. In case of more than one spring breakage on loaded /Oil Tank/BOX/BCX & Tank wagon the same shall be detached at the point of detection. In case of detection in mid section, the spring shall also be clamped and the train will be permitted to move at cautious speed till the section is cleared.





Mumbai Division : Kalyan/KYN- Premium Examination Point
Thal/TVSG - Premium Examination Point
Trombay/TMBY- Only Tank Wagon Examination point
Jasai/JSLE – CC Rake Re-validation point
JNPT- CC Rake Re-validation point
Igatpuri/IGP and Lonavala/LNL- are for Brake Power up-gradation points for the trains descending Ghat section
Bhusaval Division : Bhusaval/BSL- CC and Premium Examination Point.
Nagpur Division : Ajni/AQ- Premium Examination Point (CC Examination Point for BLCA + BLCB
Amla/AMF- Premium Examination Point and for Brake Power upgrading points for




1. Rake integrity is not disturbed by more than 10 FWUs or Four 8- Wheeled wagons. Only intensively examined wagons duly certified by train examining staff are attached.
2. All CBCs and air hoses are properly coupled and locked.
3. All the angle cocks are in open condition.
4. The rearmost angle cock of LV is in closed position.
5. Empty load handle is properly placed as per the empty or loaded condition of the wagons.
6. There is no loose fittings/hanging parts like push rod, pull rod, brake beam, safety brackets, brake blocks, CBC operating, handle etc., which may endanger the safe running of train.
7. Hand brake of all the wagons is in released condition i.e., in OFF position.



A) Setting of Empty/Load Device in Wagons-

The Empty/Load device in wagons if not set in correct position will cause brake binding and flat tyre.
1. To avoid cases of flat tyre /poor brake power, it should be ensured at the time of loading/unloading that Empty/Load Box lever should be put in correct position by Operating/Commercial staff i.e. On Empty Position - When wagon is empty or slightly loaded. On Loaded Position- When wagon is loaded.

2. This should be super checked by Guard at the time of starting train from originating point, and by TXR at the time of train examination.




In keeping with global trend, there has been a long outstanding demand of the industry and trade for transparency in sharing of information to give the customers an up-to date business like environment. Railways in this millennium have decided not only to perform the traditional tasks of carrying passengers and goods efficiently, but also to change the mindset of working as a closed system. The great concern to improve on its market share has prompted Railways to have a multi pronged approach to its freight policy. Continuous Cargo Visibility has always been a critical component of the Supply Chain Distribution Management System.



ODC / ISMD: Over Dimensional Consignment / Loads Infringing Standard

Moving Dimensions: SR 4.28 – 1 to 3.

Loads which infringe standard moving dimensions will not be dispatched without the sanction of the COM (Chief Operations Manager), who will, if necessary obtain the sanction of CRS (Commissioner of Railway Safety) through CE (Chief Engineer).
When Guard wagons are attached due to projections beyond the ends of a wagon, Guard must see that they are not separated from the wagons in which the projected load is placed.



(I) & (II) Conventional Locos
Coaching Locos (Railway Board Letter No.92/Elect (TRS)/138/5 Pt. I, dated 18.01.2001
& Railway Board Letter No.9/Elect (TRS)/138/5 Pt.ll, dated 21.12.001)

10-Hour Rule for Train Crew

10-Hour Rule for Train Crew

1. Overall duty of running staff from ‘sign-on’ to ‘sign-off’ should not generally exceed 12 hours.
2. Running duty at a stretch should not ordinarily exceed 10 hours from the departure of the train. Staff shall be entitled to claim relief thereafter.
3. In operational exigencies, running duty may be extended beyond 10 hours within overall limit of 12 hours provided due notice has been given to the staff by SCOR, before the completion of 8 hours duty.
4. If a train doesn’t reach its normal crew changing point / destination within a overall limit of 12 hours, and the crew changing point is approximately 1 hours journey, the staff should be required to work the train up to the crew changing point.




1. Running staff (Loco Pilots) review should be carried out every six months; i.e 1st April and 1st October by the Power Officers i.e. Sr.DME/Sr.DEE of the division. After obtaining associate finance vetting and DRM’s approval these proposals are sent to HQRs for further scrutiny by the JA Grade Officers Evaluation Committee.
2. Review of Loco Pilot (Goods): For calculating the requirement of Loco Pilot (Goods) the total number of working hours logged by Loco Pilot (Goods) is calculated and then the following formula is applied.

Wagon Pool

Wagon Pool

Wagon pool is an arrangement by which all wagons, except exempted by DWI, shall be made available for loading to any station. Individual railways own wagons in IR and thus wagon pool requires pooling of wagons of all the Zonal Railways. The utilization of wagons involves inter-railway movement and hence utilization of wagon pool is controlled and supervised by the DWI.


As various railway companies had evolved their own wagon designs, a wagon of lone railway system might not be considered safe or up to the standard by another railway company. To get over this

Rationalization Order

Rationalization Order

Under section 71 of Indian Railways Act 1989, Railway Board has been empowered to charge freight over route, which may not be the shortest between alighting point and destination. The Rationalization order indicating the route through which the freight is to be charged is issued by traffic transportation branch, Railway Board.

Revised rule 125 of IRCA Goods Tariff Part l(Volume-l) vide Board's letter No. ECR 1125/94/3 dated 6/10/94 through which it has been that directed unless there is specific instruction in writing from the center or his authorized agent to the contrary, goods will be dispatched by the route optionally feasible and freight  charges will be levied by the shortest route. However, charging of freight by shortest route is subject to any instructions issued under rationalities order issued from time to time.



Following schemes are included in this category:-

1) Incentive scheme for incremental scheme.
2) Long term Special Incentive Scheme.
3) Incentive Scheme for Traditional Empty Flow Direction.
4) Incentive scheme for Freight forwarders
5) Incentive scheme for Freight forwarders in Traditional Empty Flow Directions.
6) Incentive scheme for Two-leg Traffic
7) Incentive scheme for Loading Bagged Consignment in BOXN
8) Incentive scheme for lump sum special Rates and SLA
9) Incentive scheme for Green field projects
10) Incentive scheme for Traffic on MG and NG system
11) Incentive scheme for Private Investment in Wagons

12) Incentive scheme for Underutilized Routes


TRANSPORT PRODUCTS: These are various transportation options differentiated primarily by the volume of traffic and include following services:-

(a) Block Rake:  - It is a train carrying wagons for a single destination. Composition of Block rakes composed of different types of wagons are notified by Railway board will be booked at Train Load rate.

(b) Mini Rake:- This is a short rake with a composition shorter than the specified number of wagons required for a block rake. Mini rake can be loaded at TLR under the following conditions:
1. It will have a minimum composition of 20 wagons.
2. It can be booked to or from any notified full rake or half rake terminal.
3. Free time for loading/unloading will be 5 hours.
4. It can be loaded only up to 400 kms.
5. Permitted only in covered wagons

Development of rail-side warehouses

Development of rail-side warehouses

With a view to provide seamless door to door transportation, IR and Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC) initiated a pilot project at Whitefield Satellite Goods Terminal at Bangalore.
Under this project, CWC built a state of the art go down with a capacity of 15000 tonnes, along the railway track in a goods yard. It also provides ancillary facilities in the integrated goods shed complex.
A road has also been provided on the other side of the track for unloading of consignment from the wagon directly into the trucks.




There are nearly 2,25,000 wagons exist in the Indian Railways spread over 16 zones duly allotted to various divisions according to their requirements. It becomes very difficult to ascertain the performance of them if we don’t monitor their movements. Monitoring the movement of wagons is done by stations and control offices and through the FOIS net work. These exercises are done on a daily basis and periodically also. Due to adjustments in loading in interchanges of trains, powers, empties and loads the link in constantly maintaining the physical availability of rolling stock becomes inaccurate. Hence an exercise called WAGON CENSUS is conducted every year for coaching and goods stock. It is separately conducted for coaching and goods, separately for BG and MG.

History of Rail Transport in India

History of Rail Transport in India

The history of rail transport in India began in the mid-nineteenth century. In 1849, there was not a single kilometer of railway line in India. By 1929, there were 66,000 km (41,000 mi) of railway lines serving most of the districts in the country. At that point of time, the railways represented a capital value of some British

Sterling Pounds 687 million, and carried over 620 million passengers and approximately 90 million tons of goods a year. The railways in India were a group of privately owned companies. The military engineers of the East India Company, later of the British Indian Army, contributed to the birth and growth of the railways


Importance of Freight Operation:

Importance of Freight Operation:

The freight business is the major source of revenue for the Indian Railway. Main activity centers of freight operation include terminals, yards, control office and stations.

I. Broad Classification of Goods Trains:

1. End to End:

Trains, generally run from the train-originating Terminal to the final destination. This is an express stream of freight trains and does not require any stoppage en route, except for crew change.



Movement of wagon load traffic, is regulated by what is known as the Schedule of Preferential Traffic, laid down by the Central Government (Railway Board) under Section 71 Of The Railways Act, 1989 and is designed to ensure that certain essential commodities and urgent movements are accorded necessary preference at a time when the available transport is not adequate to meet with all the demands. Traffic is classified into 4 categories viz., A, B, C, and D. Commodities registered in the lower categories cannot have preference over those registered in the higher categories although the former may have been registered much earlier.





i. The purpose of this Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is to delineate responsibilities and procedures for the control and coordination of all responses to emergency situations on the mainline.

ii. To provide step by step guidance on how to deal with incidents should they happen.

iii. Particular note should be taken of the need to provide suitable training to keep staff aware of what needs to be done in the event of a serious incident.

1. Objectives of incident Management Plan.


Why do trains sometimes slow down on some sections instead of continuing at the same speed throughout?

There are many reasons for a reduction in speed. There may be permanent speed restrictions on the section of track: because of sharp curves or curves with inadequate cant; approaches to crossovers, diamonds, etc.; structures too close to the track; ghat sections; lineside tenements or pedestrian traffic; level crossings; old bridges or culverts; inferior track or lighter rails than normally required; unstable trackbed; frequent threat of flooding, etc. The working timetable usu


Items checked by Sr. DOM daily / at regular intervals, periodically & monthly

Items checked by Sr. DOM daily / at regular intervals:

(i) Interchange of Trains:

Three checks a day (at 08.15 Hrs, 17.00 Hrs, and 22.00 Hrs.)

(ii) Train Running and Train Ordering:

A study will be done at 08.15 Hrs, 17.00 Hrs and at 22.00 Hrs.

(iii) Analysis of DWB:


Registers generally maintained in control

Registers generally maintained in control

1. By the section controller :

a. Sections controller’s diary and charge book.
b. Inward message book.
c. Outward message book
d. Working Order register
e. Weather warning and acknowledgement register
f. Sick wagon register.
g. Yard report register.

Books / documents and basic records to be kept in control office

Books / documents and basic records to be kept in control office.

1. Station working rules of all station.
2. Working facilities available on the transshipment sheds.
3. Schedule of shunting engines in the various yards.
4. Link diagrams of rakes and engine working the passenger services and also of goods trains where laid down.
5. Crew link diagram of the various services, for the running staff.

Co- ordination between Control and stations

Co- ordination between Control and stations

1. Asking line clear: In order to avoid the detention to passenger trains for crossing a less important train, line clear enquiry for the less important train must not be asked until the train is ready to leave and until the Section Controllers permission has been obtained. The Station Master receiving the line clear enquiry must immediately ask the controller permission to give line clear before giving the reply. The station Master on duty is entirely responsible for seeing that the necessary General and Subsidiary rules and station Working Rules are observed before giving Line Clear.


Duties of Control Staff

Duties of Control Staff: The main duties of control staff which are only guidelines to their day to day working and are not exhaustive are as under.

a) Chief Controller (In-charge)

The chief controller is in overall charge of control office and is responsible for the total transportation of the Division on day to day basis. His duties include –

i. A review of previous day’s performance to conform that all forecasts made have been fully met. For shortfalls, convincing reasons have to be pinpointed to prevent recurrence.

Basic Function of control

Basic Function of control:

1. Train Control:

a) This job is done by SCOR(Section Controller).
b) Each SCOR is provided with the master chart of that section.
c) In the master chart the path of M/E and Passenger trains are charted in different colors.
d) This master chart helps in making advance planning by SCOR.
e) With the help of master chart, SCOR guides the SM and Yard Master relating to the movement of trains.
f) SCOR gets advices regarding train operation and optimum use of wagons and engines from the CHC and Dy. CHC.



The control organization of Indian Railways is the nerve centre of train operations. It controls the asset management of the Railways, in a dynamic situation, round the clock incessantly moving trains on its entire network. It has come a long way from being an exclusively telephone based system emerging in the form of an Information Technology enabled organization.This basic structure of Operating control on Indian Railways exists at the Divisional Level, which has also been extended to Area control levels. In addition, Central Control office is situated in the headquarters office and one at Railway Board.

Functions of the Traffic Department

Functions of the Traffic Department

1. Proper and Economical use of available resources such as locomotives, Rolling stock, track, signalling and telecommunication equipment and manpower etc.
2. Timely planning for additional line/track and rolling stock capacities based on realistic traffic forecasts.
3. Better Quality of service: This will include the following:-
A. Passenger Train Operation
(i) Better Time-Table.
(ii) Punctuality of passenger carrying trains.
(iii) Adequate & proper accommodation for passengers to travel.
(iv) Safety of passengers.
 B. (Goods Train Operation)

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