Definition : For the purpose of Railway working, accident is an occurrence in the course of working of Railway which does or may affect the safety of the railway, its engine, rolling stock, permanent way and works, fixed installations, passengers or servant which affect the safety of others or which does or may cause delay to train or loss to the railway property. For statistical purposes accident has been classified in categories from A to R excluding I and O.

Classification of Accidents: (AM 117 –124)

Accidents are classified under following heads -

1. Train Accidents
2. Yard Accidents
3. Indicative Accidents
4. Equipments Failures
5. Unusual Incidents.
1. Train Accidents – Train accidents is an accident that involve a train. Train accidents are further divided as –
a. Consequential Train Accidents – Include train accidents having serious repercussion in terms of either one or many or all the following –
  •  Loss of human life
  •  Human injury.
  •  Loss of Railway property.
  •  Interruption of Rail traffic.
  •  Train accident under following classification will be termed as consequential train accident.

Collision All cases under category A1 to A4
Fire All cases under category B1 to B4
Level crossing All cases under category C1 to C4
Derailment All cases under category D1 to D4
Miscellaneous All cases under category E1

b. Other Train Accidents.- All other accidents which are not covered under the definition of consequential train accident are to be treated as other train accident.
2. Yard Accidents: All accidents that take place in a yard and does not involve a train are termed as yard accident. These include accidents falling under category A-5,B-7,C-9 and D-6.
3. Indicative accidents: In real term they are not accidents but are serious potential hazards and include all cases of train passing signal at danger, averted collision, breach of block rule coming under classification F,G and H.
a. Averted collision – An averted collision is a circumstance under which but for the vigilance shown by any person or persons, a collision could have occurred, either in the block section or within the station limits between two trains or between a train and an obstruction.
Provided further that such an occurrence may not be treated as an “Averted Accident”

i) If, outside the station limits, the distance between the two trains or the train and the obstruction at the time the train or trains have finally come to a stop, is 400 meters or more.
ii.) If, within the station limits, there is an intervening stop signal at danger governing the moving train, and compliance by the moving train with the indication conveyed by the stop signal averted the collision between the trains or between the train and the obstruction.
b. Breach of rules- When a train inters a block section without any “Authority to proceed” or with an improper authority to proceed, or is received on a blocked line not constituting an averted collision, or when it enters or is received on a wrong line at a station or a Catch / Slip siding or sand hump, it constitutes breach of Block Rules.
c. Signal passed at danger- Passenger train passed signal at danger without proper authority (H-1) and other train passed signal at danger without proper authority (H-2)
4. Equipment failure – Failure of railway equipment i.e. Engine, rolling stock, permanent way, OHE, signal and telecommunication (J,K,L,M)
5. Unusual Incident – These include cases related to law and order but not resulting in train accidents and other incidents under classification N, P,Q and R 

Reportable train accident- (AM-106)

All accident falling under the purview of section 113 of railway act 1989 are termed as reportable train accident and include following -

1. Any accident attended with loss of human life, or with grievous hurt.
2. Any collision between trains of which one is a train carrying passengers or
3. The derailment of any train carrying passenger, or of any part of such train, or
4. Accident which are attended with loss of human life in passenger trains
involving train wrecking or attempted train wrecking , cased of running over obstruction placed on the line, of passenger falling out of train or of fires in trains, or grievous hurt as defined in the Indian Penal Code , or serious damage to railway property of the value exceeding rupees 25 Lakhs which have not actually occur which by the nature of the accident might reasonably have been expected to occur and also cased interruption of any important through line of communications for at least 24 hours.

Means to report of an accident –AM 201

Every Railway servant shall report with least possible delay every “Accident” or “Unusual Occurrence ” in the course of working the Railway which may come to his notice, to the nearest station master or section in charge through the following any possible means-

1. PFT/EFT/Walkie-Talkie / VHF set /Mobile phone
2. Gate Telephone.
3. By stopping train/loco/trolly or other vehicle passing on adjacent line.
4. BSNL/MTNL Telephone
5. By sending message through a railway servant to the nearest SM.
6. Sending the light engine of the train before detaching the engine ,SR 6.09-1 should be followed, however in case of suspected sabotage, engine etc should not be disturbed ,or
7. By road transport if available.


a) Accident to a train carrying passengers which is attended with –
i. Loss of life or
ii. With grievous hurt (as per section 320 of IPC) to a passenger in the train,
iii. With serious damage to railway property of the value exceeding Rs. 2 Cror and
b) Any other accidents which in the opinion of the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety or CRS require the holding of an inquiry by the CRS shall also be deemed to be a serious accident.

However the following shall be excluded -

(a) Cases of trespassers run over and injured or killed through their own carelessness or of passengers injured or killed through their own carelessness, and
(b) Cases involving persons being Railway servant or holding valid passes / ticket or otherwise who are killed or grievously injured while traveling outside the rolling stock of a passenger train such as on foot board or roof or buffer but excluding the inside of vestibules between coaches, or run over to a Level Crossing or elsewhere on the Railway track by a train , and
(c) Level crossing accident where no passenger or Railway servant is killed or grievously hurt unless the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety or Commissioner of Railway Safety is of the opinion that the accident requires the holding of an inquiry by the Commissioner of Railway Safety.

Duty of Station master after accident (AM 311)

If an accident comes to the notice to the Station Master, he shall immediately -

1. Ensure that no other train enters the affected section. On Double line he must lock the commutator of the block instrument controlling the affected section in ‘Train on Line’ position.
2. Advise the controller of the accident, indicating the nature of medical and other assistance required. If the section is not controlled or if the control phone is out of order, the DOM or the CHC must be advised on the public phone or by other means available. The Station Master of adjacent station and other major station
should also be advised accordingly.
3. Take action to protect and safe Guard Railway and public property.
4. Collect medical aid, if required, locally from the nearest hospitals, dispensaries and doctors. In order to convey medical help to the site of the accident, trolleys may be sent out and train engines utilized or outside conveyance requisitioned, if necessary .In this connection, he must requisition help from the local police and Magistrate.
5. Report the accident to all concerned as prescribed in rules.
6. Call all the ‘Off’ duty staff and allot them specific duties for relief and rescue.
7. Arrange to provide all sort of assistance to the affected passengers such as catering, drinking water, issue of complimentary passes, free messages to relatives etc.
8. Open information counter and booth for giving information to the public regarding name of the injured / dead passenger and regulation /diversion of the train etc. STD booth located at stations /adjacent areas should be utilized for giving relevant information.
9. Arrange for whatever assistance is required in connection with clearing arrangements, transshipment etc. and provide lights, refreshments, manual help and any other requirements which can be procure within his resources.
10. Arrange for the section to be cleared of unaffected vehicles as early as possible, but if the accident is attributed to sabotage or suspected sabotage he shall not do so, but wait for instructions from the Officer in charge at site.
11. Remain on-duty taking orders from the control and the Officer in charge of break down operations till the accident is cleared or he is replaced by a competent person.


After accident cope the situation the steps taken by Rail administration called “Disaster Management”

The top priority of Railway to provide accident free, safe journey. For which continuous effort are carrying on. New technology has been introduced in Railway. Effort are taken to less dependence on human being and system made such type that human failure does not made any unusual.
The best training has been given to employee and how to stress free this also describe by training. But there are always chances of accident and to cope the situation of the system called” Disaster Management”.
In every 150 to 200 k.m. Accident relief train and Medical relief train provided and staffs are made available round the clock. Target time for dispatched also fixed. Each train movement Rail employee trained in First Aid.
First aid available with Station Master and Guard, Phone no. of local administrative Offices, hospitals and their name displayed for quick information and assistance.

Object of Disaster Management (AM - 301)

1. Protection of adjacent running line.
2. Protect ion of the site of accident.
3. Save life and alleviate suffering.
4. Protect property including mails.
5. Provide succor and help the passengers at the site of the accident.
6. Transportation of stranded passengers.
7. Preservation of clue and ascertain the cause of the accident.
8. Restore through communication.

Hooter code

Hooter will blow to inform about accident to all concerned on those station where Accident relief train and Medical relief van is available.
Each hooter will blow for 45 second and the time interval between the hooter codes will keep 5 seconds for clear understanding.

The meaning of hooter code is as under –

Two Hooter -                                     ART required at home station.
Three Hooter -                                   ART required at outside the Home station.
Four Hooter -                                    ART and MRV required at Home station.
Five Hooter -                                     ART and MRV required at Outside the home station.
One long Hooter (90 second) -          For Cancellation of Medical Van and Breakdown train.

Note - Each hooter code will be repeated twice with an interval of five minutes. 

Target time for turning out the Breakdown trains.

ART During day. -                       30 minutes.
During night. -                              45 minutes.
Note : The time is reckoned from the time of ordering to the time of leaving the shed.

Target time for turning out the Medical Van.

MRV In case of Double exit siding -       15 minutes.
In case of Single exit siding -                  20 minutes.
Note: The time is reckoned from the time of ordering to the time of dispatch.

General Instructions :

1. Accident relief train run on priority, giving precedence of all trains.
2. MRV should be preceding over Relief train.
3. MRV and ART should be dispatched on their schedule time.
4. Relief train should not be delayed for Guard, the breakdown in charge will carry the train and Guard will send by following means.

Duties of Loco Pilot and Assistant Loco Pilot in case of an Accident (AM 307)

At the time of accident the Loco Pilot and Assistant Loco Pilot must immediately -

1. Switch on the flasher light of the engine and switch ‘Off’ the head light of the engine.
2. Sound short whistle frequently to warn the Loco Pilot of an approaching train.
3. Arrange to protect the adjacent line and then the same line in accordance with GR 6.03 and SR 6.03-1. Information should be exchanged with Guard on Walkie Talkie set or other means available.
4. Arrange to advise control and adjacent stations about the accident by available means.
5. Take such technical precautions as may be necessary or as prescribed by special instructions to make the train safe.
6. Render all possible Assistance to Guard particularly, in the assessment of damage to rolling stock and or locomotive and the nature of assistance required.

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