A) Setting of Empty/Load Device in Wagons-

The Empty/Load device in wagons if not set in correct position will cause brake binding and flat tyre.
1. To avoid cases of flat tyre /poor brake power, it should be ensured at the time of loading/unloading that Empty/Load Box lever should be put in correct position by Operating/Commercial staff i.e. On Empty Position - When wagon is empty or slightly loaded. On Loaded Position- When wagon is loaded.

2. This should be super checked by Guard at the time of starting train from originating point, and by TXR at the time of train examination.

3. Before movement of loads from loading/unloading terminals, it should be ensured by the Operating staff that, hand brakes are released.

4. While picking up load from Road side stations, the train crew should ensure release of hand brakes.

B) Rolling out/Rolling in Examination of Passenger carrying Trains-

To detect unusual, especially brake binding/flat tyre, the C&W department has started rolling out and rolling in examination of passenger carrying trains at nominated points. The rolling out/rolling in Gangs deployed in Divisions are as under –
Mumbai Division - CSTM, DR, LTT, IGP
Bhusawal Division - BSL
Nagpur Division - NGP, BPQ
Pune Division - PA, MRJ, KOP
Sholapur Division - DD, SUR
·         Guards of all trains should look back frequently at the above stations to see that, no danger hand signal is exhibited by Station staff/TXR staff deployed for rolling out examination and whenever any danger signal is shown the train should be brought to a stop immediately by using VHF communication available with the Driver and Guard by using the brakes available in SLR.
·         The staff involved in shunting of coaches attached/detached enroute on Passenger carrying trains should ensure complete releasing of coaches before starting shunting in order to avoid any possibility of developing flat tyre on the coaches. Special attention should be paid at the stations, where regular attaching/detaching of sectional coaches is taking place.
·         Shunting staff to ensure complete release of coaches/wagons after shunting, to  avoid brake binding/flat tyre.


Flat tyre may cause extensive damage to track by causing rail fractures and weld joint failures, resulting into serious accidents. To avoid rail fractures/welded joints failures caused by flat tyres, the staff should be counseled to take necessary precautions as under-


As per Railway Board’s guidelines, the permissible flat on wheel tread is limited to 60 mm for Goods stock and 50 mm for the Coaching stock/Locomotives. All C&W Train Examination staff should be counseled to adhere to the provision of para 4.22 “Tyre Defects” of Part –IV IRCA Conference Rules for Coaching stock and Para 4.18 of Part-III of IRCA Conference Rules, for Freight Stock. The TXR staff should be counseled not to allow any wagon/coach having length of flatness more than permitted as above under any circumstances. Such wagons/coaches should be detached immediately after being marked sick. The C&W Train Examination staff in C&W depots/sick lines must check the flatness of wheel tread with the help of Tyre Defect Gauge. The flatness of the wheel tread should invariably be checked during intensive examination.


On detection of flat tyre, and after the locomotive/rolling stock involved has been checked by loco shed staff/C&W staff, they should arrange replacement of wheel at site in case of wagon/coach and in case of locomotive, the same should be worked to nearest loco shed having pit wheel/ lathe for attention and a speed restriction of 20 kmph should be observed till the loco is cleared to the concerned loco shed.


The train crew and shunting staff should be trained to release brakes whenever DV isolating cock is operated by them. The empty/load box device should be kept in the empty/loaded position depending upon empty/loaded condition of the stock to avoid skidding of wheels, resulting into flatness of tyre during the run. The driver and guard should also be vigilant in detection of hammering blows /sounds while on run and on detection of the same should observe a speed restriction of 20 kmph to clear the section upto next station where they should stop the train and advise control office regarding the flat tyre and ask for C&W TXR/Loco shed staff to attend.


The station staff should also be counseled to detect the hammering sound if heard on a passing train. They must without fail intimate the approximate position of the wagon/coach to the next station and also to Section Controller to stop the train and get it examined for detecting the locomotive/rolling stock with skidded wheels having flatness of the wheel tread. The train should be inspected by Driver, Guard and ASM and work with restricted speed of 20 kmph if possible, upto the next TXR/Loco examination station. All TIs and Safety Counsellors should counsel SM/ASM, Cabinmen, and Switchmen to keep vigilance check on the hammering sound to detect the flat tyre on a passing train and stop the same before it causes extensive damages.


The Section Controller should take the advise of flat tyre reported by stations seriously and should not allow running of the train for onward journey without ensuring proper examination by C&W/Loco staff. On advice the train should be stopped at the next station and should not be allowed to cause avoidable damage to track.


The Engineering staff and Supervisors at work sites or while doing trolley or foot inspection should also be counseled to be vigilant towards detection of flat tyre on the passing trains. In case of any such detect noticed on any passing train, the approximate position of the culprit wagon/coach should be immediately advised to the next station through emergency control phone or from the nearest level crossing gate. Similarly, the gatemen should also be counseled to be alert and vigilant in detection of hammering sound on any of the passing train and in case of such detection the gatemen should advise the Station Master to stop the train. Gatemen should also show red flag/danger signal to the crew of the train so that, the train be stopped before causing extensive damage.


Engineering Control should organize a special check upto 50 kms in the rear from point of detection of flat tyre to ensure the safety of track subsequent to passage of train having flat tyre.


(Ref – Safety Circular No. 25/2000 dated 28.11.2000 jointly signed by –CME, CE, CEE, COM & CSO)-
The brake binding and subsequently flat tyre resulting in safety hazard on account of Rail Fracture/Weld failure/Roller bearing failure etc.

1.     Detection of Brake Binding/Flat Tyres on Trains-

Train crew/Station staff/Gatemen will be vigilant to detect any abnormality such as brake binding, unusal sound, smoke emission etc. If any such abnormality is noticed, the above staff shall take immediate steps to stop the affected train.

2. In case of brake binding on a train enroute, the Driver and Guard must take the prescribed remedial action or releasing the brakes and isolate the brakes of the affected coach/wagon, which should be got examined at the next train examination point. This will ensure that, brake binding will not result in flat tyre.

3. TXR staff available for Rolling In/Rolling Out examination shall detect brake binding/flat tyre in coaches and initiate action.

4. It is imperative that, all cases of coach detachment on the Division be duly enquired into by Officers concerned with Loco Operation, C & W and Safety and remedial measures taken to prevent enroute detachments.

5. Action to be taken by Train Crew after detection of Brake Binding/Flat Tyrei)
i. For air brake coaching stock – Assistant Driver and Guard will find out location of brake binding/flat tyre. At station the assistance should be given by Station staff to train crew. After detecting the culprit coach, the brakes should be released manually and thereafter, brake system should be isolated by closing isolating cocks of brake cylinders, isolating cocks in between FP and auxiliary Reservoir and isolating the DV by rotating DV handle to horizontal position as per detailed instructions given in the working time table.

ii) For vacuum brake stock-  Assistant Driver and Guard will find out location of brake binding/flat tyre. At station, the assistance should be given by Station staff to train crew. After detecting, the brake should be manually released and thereafter, the brake system should be isolated by disconnecting siphon pipe from release valve and providing wooden plug as dummy with hard grease on the loose end of siphon pipe. For this, the dummy plug/hard grease will be supplied to driver and guard as personal store, by the lobby incharges for guards and drivers at the time of sign on. The supply of the wooden plug/hard grease would be taken from C & W department.

iii) For Superfast trains or other trains on which TXR staff is accompanying, the Driver and Guard will be assisted by the on board TXR staff for activities mentioned in 6(i) & (ii).

6. If as a result of isolation of brake system as per para 6 (i) & (ii) above, the brake power enroute comes down below prescribed 90%, the train should be worked with restricted speed to the next train examination station.

7. Action to be taken by C&W staff
i) The train on which brake binding/flat tyre is reported should be examined by C&W staff at the first opportunity, investigated and certified FIT for further run.
ii) CWI/TXR staff should accompany the train whenever flat tyres are reported. They must ensure proper repair either at the enroute station or at the terminating station as deemed necessary.

8. Action to be taken by Train Crew at the time of Cattle run over
       i)  After cattle run over, if BP pressure/vacuum drops suddenly, train crew will check the train for the reason of BP pressure/vacuum drop. If any BP/FP/VAC hose pipe is found uncoupled train crew will couple it and ensure release of train brakes. The train crew will manually release the brakes, if there is brake binding. If manual release is not possible, the particular coach will be isolated as mentioned in par 6 (i) & (ii) above.

ii) Guard of the train will give necessary message to Section Controller regarding the affected coach at the next station, who will give details of the coach to C&W Controller.
TXR staff at the first available examination point will check the affected coach for proper functioning of brake equipment.

9. Action to be taken by Train Crew at the time of ACP
i) The train crew will check the train to find out the coach from which alarm chain has been pulled. After detecting the coach, resetting of ACP apparatus should be done.

ii) It should be ensured that there is no leakage after resetting the ACP.

iii) It should also be ensured that, the brakes of the affected coach are in released condition after resetting the ACP.

iv) If brakes are not released after resetting the ACP, then action should be taken as detailed at 6(i) & (ii) above.

10. Action to be taken by Train Crew after Emergency Brake Application-

Before starting the train it should be ensured that, prescribed amount of air pressure/vacuum has been obtained in engine and brakes are in fully released position.

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